Timeline of Bracewell and how it relates to English History

Year Event Location References
800BC-43BC Celtic Britain (The Iron Age). Earliest record of Celts, known as Brittonic in England, Wales and south of Scotland, Pictish in the north of Scotland and Goidelic in southwest of Scotland. Britain https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtic_Britons
43BC-410AD Roman rule in Britain. Introduced architecture, agriculture, road building and industry to Britain. Britain https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Britain
410-1086 Anglo-Saxon Britain. Britain was not united under Saxon rule, but had many different rulers.  Bracewell was in the kingdom of Northumbria, the area of northern England Northumbria https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Anglo-Saxon_England
793-1066 Viking era. The first recorded Viking invasion of Britain was the monastery of Lindisfarne, in the northeast of England. By the late 800s, there were Viking settlements in Britain, and the largest impact was the creation of England and Scotland as unified kingdoms. Vikings rarely took over lands that were already inhabited, meaning they often assimilated themselves into the residing cultures. As such, although the Vikings had a huge impact as traders, the Anglo-Saxon age continued whilst the Vikings invaded. The notable exception to this was the creation of the Dane Law, an area of England which fell under Danish rule and as such was subjected to Viking rule. Whilst the term Dane Law didn’t come into use until the early 1000s, it was likely happening de facto from the early 800s. The area of Northumbria which Bracewell was in became a part of this and so the Viking era had a greater impact on Bracewell residents than other parts of England. This meant Bracewell was under Viking rule, Scandinavian language had a greater long term impact in this area of the country with the most Scandinavian-origin place names in England being found in this area. Scandinavian words which are still used in the English language today include ‘gun’, ‘law’, ‘bylaw’, ‘heathen’, ‘mire’, ‘muck’ and many more. It was not until 1016 that the entirety of England fell under the Danish rule of Cnut the Great. Britain https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viking_Age
1043 Edward the Confessor. Becomes king of all of England. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1054 The Great Schism,. A split between the Latin West and Greek East, leading to the formation of the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches, England was Roman Catholic. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1066 The Battle of Hastings and the Battle of Stamford Bridge. In January 1066, King Edward the Confessor died childless, leaving the inheritance of the throne to contention. The Anglo-Saxon, Harold Godwinson was crowned shortly after Edward’s death, but William, Duke of Normandy and Harold’s brother, Tostig, along with the Norwegian king, Harald Hardrada, all believed they had the right to the throne. Hardrada (meaning ‘hard-ruler’) and Tostig, invaded and defeated a small English army at the Battle of Fulford in September, but were then defeated by Harold five days later at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. William of Normandy then attacked England from the south, landing in the small town of Battle, near Hastings in Sussex, three days later. Harold’s army marched almost the entire length of the country to meet the Norman invaders, but the English were exhausted and the Normans had better battle tactics. Harold was killed towards the end of the battle and William was crowned king on Christmas Day. This marked the start of Norman rule in England. Bracewell must have predated the Battle of Hastings to have been gifted to Tempest after the Battle. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hastings
1066 The earliest record of Bracewell is 1066, when a Norman called Henry Tempest was granted the lands as a reward for his part in the Battle of Hastings. In 1066 two powerful Saxon lords, Arnketil and Ulfkil controlled the village, but had to hand it over to Tempest, who was likely a dependent of William of Poitou, William the Conquerer’s personal chaplain. The name Bracewell originates from the Anglo-Saxon words, Braegd or Breið, meaning spring or stream. This was likely a personal Anglo-Saxon name, which then, once the town was created, became a name of some of the townsfolk, starting as ‘of Bracewell’, before dropping the ‘of’ and using Bracewell as a last name. Alternate spellings of Bracewell include Brasewell, Brasswell, Brazewell and Bracefield, due to high illiteracy rates, spelling could vary even from one generation to the next. Bracewell, Yorks, Stamford, Yorks, Hastings, Sussex, UK https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bracewell_and_Brogden
1086 The Domesday Book. The book was created by William of Normandy (now known as William the Conqueror), as a ‘Great Survey’ of much of England and some of Wales. The Book was written in Medieval Latin, and was used to determine what taxes towns owed to the Crown, based on what had been collected by Edward the Confessor. However, it acted as the first, very basic census of the country. In the Domesday Book, Bracewell was taxed six geld, classifying it as quite large, or valuable although it had no recorded households. Now, Roger of Poitou (Poiters) was the lord. As William the Conquerer’s personal chaplain, this would suggest Bracewell and the surrounding area was highly valued. Bracewell, Yorks, UK and England
1143 The Church of St Micheal is a Norman church, it was originally Henry Tempest’s private family chapel. It is now an Anglican church (branch of Church of England) and a focal point of the town. It became a parish church in 1153. Bracewell, Yorks, UK https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Michael%27s_Church,_Bracewell
1135-53 The Anarchy. A civil war in England and Normandy, resulting from a succession crisis. Caused a breakdown in law and order, mostly occurred in the south of England, but during the Battle of Lincoln, Lincs, Stephen de Blois, the nephew of the previous king was captured, and so lost control of most of the country. Licolnshire is in the northeast of England, 100 miles from Bracewell, this was a long way to travel in Norman times meaning younger Bracewell sons who joined the army may have fought, but the battles would have been unlikely to affect the village. However, the breakdown of law and order may have affected trade to and from the village. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Anarchy
1138 The Battle of the Standard. English defeated an invading Scottish army.  With the Bracewell village being located only 100 miles from the Scottish border, it is likely Bracewells who joined the army would have fought in this battle North England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Standard
1164 The Constitution of Clarendon. Laws governing trails for members of the Catholic church. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1170 Thomas Beckett’s assassination. Beckett had contentions with Henry II after his son, Henry the Young King was crowned heir apparent without Beckett’s influence, something as Archbishop of Canterbury he was entitled to. He excommunicated those involved in the crowning from the church and as a result, Henry II is believed to have made a comment that was interpreted by his followers as a direct order to assassinate Beckett who was killed whilst in prayer in Canterbury Cathedral. Beckett was made a saint two years after his death and his sister, Mary became Abbess of Barking. Henry II gave penance for his role in Beckett’s death. Canterbury, Kent, UK https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Becket
1192 The Crusades. Attempts by England, France and the Holy Roman Empire to reconquer the Holy Lands for Christianity. Traveling to the Middle East was a long journey in this era. Bracewells who joined the Crusades would have been away from home for months or years at a time. Middle East https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutions_of_Clarendon
1215 The Magna Carta. A charter of rights signed by King John, attempting to make peace between the unpopular king and rebel barons, meant to protect the rights of the church and barons, but neither side kept to their agreements and the treaty broke down. A baron is a term created by William I (the Conquerer) to denote those who pledged their loyalty to him within the feudal system (society structured around who owned land). A baron controlled a barony and could attend the Great Council which by this point developed into the Parliament. Barons are among the lowest ranked of the nobility, but still had power. Taking the name of their village as their family name, Bracewells may have had some ranking among the nobility, the rank of baron was often hereditary. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Carta
1237 The Treaty of York. The border between Scotland and England was fixed. York, Yorks, UK https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1264 Battle of Lewes. Battle in Lewes, Sussex, with Simon de Montfort fighting the unpopular Henry III. Lewes, Sussesx, UK https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1267-77 Gwynedd. An area in northwest Wales which had remained under Roman rule longer than the rest of Britain. Henry III recognized Llewelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales’ authority. In 1277, Gwynedd was annexed. Wales https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1279 Act of Mortmain. Statute of Mortmain issued by Edward I to stop to stop the kingdom’s land passing into church hands. This aimed to stop the church becoming too powerful, the parish church of St Michael’s in Bracewell would have been restricted to its control of the surrounding land. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1287 and 1294 Welsh revolt. Two revolts, led by Rhys ap Maredudd and Madog ap Llewelyn respectively, fought against English rule in Wales. Wales https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1297 The Battle of Stirling Bridge. First battle in the fight for Scottish independence, and defeated the English. Scottish independence was realized in 1328, with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton. Scotland https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1305 Execution of William Wallace. A Scottish knight assassinated for his role in the Scottish war of independence. Scotland https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1348 The Black Death. Rat-borne plague (rat fleas), carried along the Silk Road from Central Asia. Killed 30-60% of the population. High morbidity and mortality rate. Took 200 years for the population to return to previous level. Huge economical, social and religious impact. Bracewells living in Bracewell and surrounding towns would have been affected by this through a breakdown of trade and loss of family members of all ages, entire households were often lost to the plague. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Death
1356 Battle of Poiters. Major battle during the 100 Years War, in France. The English House of Plantagenet fought in France over control of the kingdom of France. The Plantagenet House had French origins, but two of its branches were rooted in Yorkshire and Lancashire, Bracewells would most likely have fought in this battle France https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Poitiers
1373 Anglo-Portugese Treaty. Treaty signed between England and Portugal, still active today. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1381 The Peasant’s Revolt. Resulted from high taxes and the impact of the Black Death. Led by Wat Taylor, mostly focused on Kent, Essex and London, but also national impacts. Mostly killing and burning property. South East England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants%27_Revolt
1395 Statute of Praemunire. To restrict papal powers in England. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1403 Battle of Shrewesbury. Battle between the Lancastrian King Henry IV and Henry Percy of Northumberland in Shrewesbury, Shrops. This is about 100 miles away from Bracewell, but as a Lancastrian king was involved (although Bracewell was still in Yorkshire at this point), people from the town of Bracewell may have been involved, particularly younger Bracewell sons who made their living in the army. North England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Shrewsbury
1415 Battle of Agincourt. Battle in the 100 Years War, in France. France https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1455-1487 War of the Roses. Series of civil wars for the throne between two Plantagenet rivals, House of Lancaster is the red rose and House of York is the white rose. The fighting wiped out the male lines on both sides. Bracewell Hall sheltered Henry VI after the Battle of Hexham in 1464.The Battle of Bosworth Field was the last significant battle in the war where Richard III, the last Plantagent king was killed. He was succeeded by Henry VII. The town of Bracewell was still located in Yorkshire, but as it was so close to the border with Lancashire, it is most likely some Bracewells would have been involved in the fighting, on the side of the White Rose. Lancs and Yorks https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses
1487 Battle of Stoke. Attempt by the Yorkists to unseat the new king Henry VII so Lambert Simnel could be crowned. Lancs and Yorks https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1513 Battle of Flodden Field. James IV of Scotland invaded England, thousands of Scots were killed by the English. Scottish border https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1521 Lutheran writings. Martin Luther’s ideas for the reform of the Catholic church became more popular in England. These books were ordered to be burned in 1526. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1536 Henry VIII and the split from Catholicism. The Reformation began with the dissolution of the monasteries is 1536, leading to the formation of the Church of England. The schism from the Catholic church was catalyzed as Henry wanted a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon, as they had no male heir, however Catholicism prohibited divorce. By forming the Church of England, Henry was able to get his divorce, and the religious structure of England changed, leading to contention between Catholics and Protestants. Henry VIII passed the Act of Supremacy, making the king and his successors heads of the church. This lead to St Michael’s Church becoming Church of England. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissolution_of_the_Monasteries
1540 William Bracewell (11x-great-grandfather of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Salterforth, Yorkshire, a village less than three miles from Bracewell. With transport being restricted to foot, horseback or cart, it was easier for people to stay within a small area. He married Grace (died aged 38) and they had one child, Henrie (died aged 48). He died in 1595 aged 55, in Barnoldswick, 1 mile from Salterforth and 2 from Bracewell. Salterforth, Yorks
1585 The Roanoke Colony, Virginia. The first colony set up in America, also known as the Lost Colony. This was in the same state as later Bracewells emigrated to, paving the way for Bracewell expansion into the New World. In 1741, James Braswell is recorded as living on the Roanoke River. VA
1588 The Spanish Armada. The Armada’s attempt to invade England was defeated. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1589 The English Armada. The Armada attacked Spain in retaliation for the Spanish Armada but was also defeated. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1589 Henrie Bracewell (10x-great-grandfather of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Barnoldswick, 2 miles from Bracewell. He married Hellen Hartley (died aged 47) in 1613 in Barnoldswick and they had 5 children, William (died aged 53), Christopher (died aged 62), Grace (died aged unknown), Henry (died aged 54) and Richard (died age unknown). The children were all born in Barnoldswick (for those we have a birth record). He died in 1637 aged 48 in Salterforth, three miles from Bracewell. Barnoldswick, Yorks
1605 Gunpowder Plot. Assassination attempt of King James I, attempting to blow up the Houses of Parliament. Religious, a group of Catholics planned the attempt. London https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1607 Jamestown, Virginia. First permanent English colony in America. Established by the Virginia Company of London (Bracewell records in London). There was initial cooperation with the natives who helped them agriculturally but relations soured after four years. Christopher Bracewell Snr’s brothers, William and Henry, emigrated to Virginia. VA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamestown,_Virginia
1612 Pendle Witch Trail. Twelve people were accused of witchcraft in Pendle Hill, 10 miles from Bracewell. Eventually, 11 people were sent to trial and 10 were found guilty and executed by hanging. Nine were hanged in Lancaster and one in York. Six of the accused were from two families, it is thought they accused each other of witchcraft to reduce their business competition, but both families were found guilty. Pendle Hill, Lancs https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pendle_witches
1617 Christopher Bracewell (9x-great-grandfather of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Barnoldswick. He married Margaret (died aged unknown) in 1640 in Salterforth aged 23 and they had 5 children, Ellen (died aged 26), Henry (died aged unknown), Lettice (died aged unknown), Christopher (died aged 56) and John (died aged 40) all born in Barnoldswick, two miles from Bracewell. Ellen died in Keighley, 15 miles from Bracewell. Christopher died in 1689 aged 72 in Barnoldswick. Barnoldswick, Yorks
1638-1732 Bracewells first recorded in the New World, living in Isle of Wight County, Virginia. In 1650, Robert Bracewell held 300 acres of land, where he worked as a clerk. His son Richard and Richard’s wife Sarah sold 300 acres to Thomas Green and two acres to William West. John Bracewell (Braswell), possibly Richard’s son, is later recorded as owning 345 acres of land. He is recorded as a grantee and over a decade or so, his acreage increases to 395 and then to 400 acres. Virginia
1642 The English Civil War. Battles in many areas of the country.  Yorks and Cheshire sign declarations of neutrality. War between Parliamentarians (Round Heads) and Royalists (Cavaliers), over governance, between Charles I and the Long Parliament. Long Parliament aimed to give parliament greater control, without the king having as much power. Records show Bracewells first in America, then Canada. Bracewells also in London and Gloucestershire England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Civil_War
1643 By this point, Christopher Bracewell Senior’s brother, Henry, had emigrated to Virginia, although on the immigration record he his recorded as Henry Brashall. His immigration was sponsored by Walter Ashton. He arrived in Charles City, VA and died in the British American Colony, Richmond, Henrico, VA in 1682. He is recorded in Early Virginia Immigrants; 1623-1666, a book published in 1912 by George Cabell Greer. A William Bracele is recorded as emigrating to New Norfolk, VA in 1637, sponsored by Thomas Powell, this could be Christopher’s brother, born in 1614. Virginia Greer, George Cabell. Early Virginia immigrants, 1623-1666. Originally published: Richmond, Va., 1912.
1649-1660 Interregnum. Between the execution of Charles I and the coronation of his son, Charles II, England was ruled by a series of republican governments. Oliver Cromwell was the Lord Protector from 1653-9. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1651 Christopher Bracewell (8x-great-grandfather of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Barnoldswick, two miles from Bracewell. He had one child, Gulielmi (died aged 56). Christopher died in 1707 aged 56. Records for Christopher are limited, possibly because his son Gulielmi has his father listed as Xtopheri on his baptism record, perhaps a result of illiteracy meaning spelling was uncertain and writing unclear. Barnoldswick, Yorks
1665-6 The Plague and Great Fire of London. The plague began in London in 1665 in a bundle of cloth infected with fleas. It spread north, the most famous ‘plague village’ being Eyam in the Derbyshire Dales, who sealed themselves off from other villages in an attempt to stop the spread, thereby sacrificing themselves. They cut holes into a rock (Coolstone) which they filled with vinegar to ‘sanitize’ goods and money which needed to pass between themselves and other villages. The actions of the Eyam villagers may have stopped the plague spreading towards Colne and Bracewell. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Fire_of_London https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eyam
1670 Gulielmi Bracewell (7x-great-grandfather of Kevan Bracewell) was born, either in Barnoldswick or Colne, a village six miles from Bracewell. He had one child, William (died aged 85) born in Colne, meaning Gulielmi was living in Colne at some point before 1696. He died aged 56 in Colne. Barnoldswick, Yorks
1688 The Glorious Revolution. Overthrow of James II by English Parliamentarians and the Dutch William of Orange. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1692-3 Salem Witch Trails. In Massachusetts, part of the British colony, 200 accused, 19 executed by hanging. Salem, MA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1694 Bank of England. Bank founded. Model for many modern banks. London https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1696 William Bracewell (6x-great-grandfather of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Colne, 6 miles from Bracewell, and baptized in St Bartholomew’s, Colne. He had two children, George (died aged 82) and William (died aged 79). He died in 1781 aged 85 in Colne. Colne, Yorks
1701 Act of Settlement. English monarch had to be protestant. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1704 Gibraltar captured by joint English and Dutch force. Gibraltar https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1704 Battle of Blenheim. English and Dutch army defeated the French in Bavaria. Bavaria https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1706 Treaty of Union. England and Scotland united as Great Britain. England and Scotland https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1719 George Bracewell (5x-great-grandfather of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Colne. He married Mary Herd (died aged 76) in Barnoldswick in 1747 and they had four children, William (died aged 80), George, Elizabeth and Samuel (died aged unknown). He died aged 56 in 1801, perhaps in Colne. Colne, Yorks
1736 Bracewells recorded as living in Tar River, Virginia. Here, Richard, Robert, James and Jacob Bracewell held land. Tar River, CT
1744 Attempted French invasion. French tried to invade England but were prevented by stormy weather. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1750 William Bracewell (4x-great-grandfather of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Colne, and baptized in St Bartholomew’s church. He married Ellen (Nelly) Varley (died aged 59) in 1769 in St Bartholomew’s, Colne and they had one child, Henry (died aged 80). He died in 1830 aged 80 in Barnoldswick. Colne, Yorks
1775 Henry Bracewell (3x-great-grandfather of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Trawden on the outskirts of Colne, 8 miles from Bracewell and was baptized in Colne, most likely St Bartholomew’s. He married Ann Watson (died aged 74) in Colne in 1800 and they had three children, Johnathon (died aged unknown), Watson (died aged 63) and Joseph (died as infant). In 1841, census, aged 66 he was listed as a worsted weaver, living in Whalley, 14 miles from Bracewell across Pendle Hill. In 1851 he was retired and living in Colne again. He died in 1855 aged 80 at Carry Bridge, Colne. Colne, Yorks
1776 American War of Independence. America https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Revolutionary_War
1817 Watson Bracewell (2x-great-grandfather of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Carry Bridge, Colne and baptized in the Dockwray Square Independent Church. In 1841, he was a bookkeeper, living in Whalley with his parents. He married Elizabeth Walker (died aged 55) in Giggleswick, 12 miles from Bracewell in 1850. They had four children, Margaret Ann (died aged unknown), John Henry (died aged unknown), Walter (died aged 56) and Alfred (died aged unkown), all born in Colne. He was recorded as a cotton manufacturer in the 1851, 1861 and 1871 censuses. In 1871, he employed 552 people, all in Colne. He died aged 63 in 1880 in Colne. Colne, Yorks
1819 Peterloo Massacre. In Manchester, the cavalry charged on a group of 60,000-80,000 people campaigning for representation in parliament. Manchester, Lancs https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1837-1901 The Victorian Era. Greater use of machine technology provided more opportunities for travel, the creation of the Empire/ Commonwealth, including Canada, meant it became more affordable for ordinary citizens to travel to the New World. First Bracewell recorded in Canada in 1891. Bracewells in the era were involved in cotton or wool manufacturing, most likely taking advantage of this new technology. England and Canada https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorian_era
1854 Walter Bracewell (great-grandfather of Kevan Bracewell) was born in East Parade, Colne. He still lived in Colne in the 1861 and 1871 censuses, with his parents. In 1871, he was a cotton weaving manager. He married Margaret Shaw Watson (died aged 80) in 1880 in Lanark, Scotland (where Margaret was born). They returned to the Colne area and had 5 children, Norman Watson (died aged 57), Thomas (died aged 73), Watson, Mamie, Dorothy and Winnifred (died aged unknown). After his marriage he was listed only as a cotton manufacturer, no longer a manager in the 1881 and 1891 (in Thornton, 20 miles from Bracewell) censuses, became a life insurance agent in 1901 (living in Skipton/ near Colne), and in 1911 was a commercial traveler, having returned to Colne, although by this point his wife and two of his children were living in Canada. Why he did not go with them is unclear, perhaps the mill had closed down and he needed to change his occupation, or he and Margaret had separated. He died in 1911 aged 56 in East Parade, Colne. Colne, Yorks
1859 Grave of Samuel Bracewell, died aged 12 years in St Bartholomew’s cemetery, a possible cousin of Walter Bracewell. Colne, Yorks
1859 Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species, a contentious book on the theory of evolution. England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1863 London Underground. First underground train runs through London, now part of the Hammersmith and City, Circle and Metropolitan Lines. London https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1861-5 The American Civil War. War of the Confederate States and Union States over the issue of slavery. Bracewell letters from Bracewells living/ fighting in Georgia, Virginia and Alabama, perhaps descendants of Christopher Bracewell Snr’s brother, Henry. Joseph Marion Bracewell entered the war at Skipperville, AL. His cousins fought in Dublin, GA, under the command of Robert E. Lee. William, James, Jesse, John and Wiley (cousins and brothers) enlisted in Company G of the Laurens Volunteers of the 49th Georgia Infantry. William and Wiley suffered from dysentery and Wiley specifically mentioned the lack of socks. Both yearned to return home and for the war to be over soon. John was wounded in the arm in the Battle of Mechanicsville, VA, on June 23rd 1863. He was captured by escaped and had to return home on foot. Whilst recovering from a hand wound in Camp Jackson Hospital, Richmond, VA, Jesse A. Bracewell wrote home to his parents, telling them he had held Lee’s horse and his cousin Wiley was wounded in the leg and taken by the ‘Yankees’. Although Wiley didn’t survive, the other four Bracewells returned home after the war, three with wounds. VA, GA and AL https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War
1870 Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. Allowed women and religious dissenters to enter for the first time. Oxford, Oxfordshire and Cambridge, Cambridgeshire https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1884 Thomas Watson Bracewell, brother of Norman and son of Watson (great-uncle of Kevan Bracewell) was born in 1884 in Skipton or Colne. In 1891, he was living in Thornton with his parents, but by 1901 was living in Keighley, working as a machine tool fitter where he boarded with the Higgs family. At this point, his younger brother Norman was living in Scotland. On August 15th 1909, he arrived in Quebec on the Hesperian, having sailed from Glasgow and still listing his occupation as an engineer. His mother, brother and sister were already living in Canada at this point, and he went to join them in Rapid City, where he intended to work as a farmer for three years. By 1915, a year after the start of WWI, Thomas Watson was back in Scotland, where he was enlisted into the Royal Engineers. In 1952, aged 68, employed as an ironmonger, he and his wife, Janet Finlay Bracewell, set sail from London, bound for Australia on the Strathmore. He gives his address as 31 Edderston Road, Peebles, Scotland, with his country of intended residence as Scotland, suggesting this journey was only a visit, and they did not intend it to be permanent. Only a year later, still living at the same address and employed as an ironmonger, he and Janet set sail from Montreal on the Express of Scotland, for Greenock, Scotland. They still listed their intended residence as Scotland, again they were only visiting in Montreal, most likely visiting Norman, Margaret and Lucy. In 1959, Thomas Watson was still employed as an ironmonger, living at 64 High Street, Peebles. He died in 1963 in Peebles, Scotland Colne,Yorks, Lanark, Lanarkshire, QB, MB, Australia
1885 Norman Bracewell (grandfather of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Haigh House, 30 miles from Bracewell and was baptized in Colne. In 1891, he lived in Thornton. At age 16 in 1901, he was living in Lanark, his mother’s home town, working as a mechanical engineer and boarding at George Mclaren Watson’s house (possibly an uncle). His sister, Dorothy, then 12, was also boarding here, as a scholar. As visitors, they were recorded in the 1901 Scotland Census.  He arrived in Canada in 1903 with his mother, Margaret and sister, Lucy. In Marquette, Manitoba, he became a farmer. His father, Walter died in Colne eight years after him, his mother and sister had arrived in Canada. In Manitoba, he married Dora Attridge (died aged 85) in 1913. They had 5 children, Walter Watson (died aged 85), Edith (died aged 80), Alfred William (died aged 83), George (died aged unknown) and Donald (died aged 21), all born in Rapid City, with the exception of Alfred, born in Brandon. He continued to work as a farmer in Marquette, MB until 1935, where he was listed as a laborer. In 1940, he was a checker in Vancouver. He died in BC in 1942 aged 57. Haigh House, Yorks, UK
1891 1891 census records Engene Bracewell as the first Bracewell recorded in Canada, living in Hochelaga, Quebec Hochelaga, QB
1901 1901 census records five Bracewells living in Toronto, Ontario Toronto, ON
1903 1911 census records Norman, Margaret and Lucy’s immigration date to Canada as 1903 Canada
1906 1906 census of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta records Thomas Bracewell as living in Manitoba MB
1909 Thomas Watson Bracewell arrives in Canada QB
1911 1911 census records five other Bracewells living in Saskatchewan and Manitoba SK and MB
1912 Stainless steel invented. Invented by Henry Brearly in Sheffield – Sheffield Steel. Sheffield, Lancs https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_English_history
1915 Walter Watson Bracewell (uncle of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Rapid City, MB. He married Francis Lesko and they had three children, Lloyd Walter, Donald and Doreen. He died in Williams Lake, BC in 2000. Rapid City, MB
1918 Edith Bracewell (aunt of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Rapid City, MB. She married Anthony Raymond Perry in Claresholm, AB. They had three children, Elaine, Sharon and Keith and she died in 1998 aged 80. Rapid City, MB
1922 Ethel Lovell (mother of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Alberta. Ethel (Gerry) was registered in Kamloops, BC in 1963 and was recorded as a guide outfitter in the Coast-Chilcotin Mountians in 1974. She was the first female licensed hunt guide in BC, from 1944. Alberta
1923 Alfred William Bracewell (father of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Brandon, MB, Kevan Bracewell’s first direct paternal ancestor to be born in Canada. He built the Freedom Coast Road in 1950. In 1954, he married Ethel Lovell and they had two children, Kevan and Alex. From 1950 until his death, he lived at Tatlayoko Lake, where he was a cattle rancher. He died in Williams Lake aged 83 in 2006. Brandon, MB
1926 George Franklin Bracewell (uncle of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Rapid City, MB. He married June Gallinger and they had two children, Lance and Carol. He died in 2014, his death was recorded in Australia and Port Coquitlam, BC. Rapid City, MB
1928 Donald Bracewell (uncle of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Rapid City, MB. He died in Williams Lake, BC in 1949. Rapid City, MB
1938 Doreen Bracewell (cousin of Kevan Bracewell) was born. She married Wally Ruckpaul and they had two children, Harold (married Cindi) and John.
1944 Lloyd Walter Bracewell (cousin of Kevan Bracewell) was born. He founded Bracewell Engineering, Northern California Water Solutions. He was educated in California and Ontario. He married Patricia Ann Leavens and they had two children, Andrew and Alan.
1945 On November 1st, J. S. Bracewell and his two sons Searcy and Fentress, who had just returned home from service in WWII opened a law firm in Houston. Their philosophy for their company was embedded in a culture of teamwork, personal relationship and professional excellence. They committed themselves to professional excellence and commitment, values which are still embodied by the company today. J.S Bracewell’s parents were both born in Alabama, in the 1860s or 1870s, suggesting they are most likely descendants or close relatives of Joseph Marion Bracewell and Christopher Bracewell Senior’s brothers, William and Henry. Houston, TX https://bracewell.com/content/our-history
1946 Donald Bracewell (cousin of Kevan Bracewell) was born. He married Anne Wiseman and they had one child, David.
1954 Lance Bracewell (cousin of Kevan Bracewell) was born. He married Inge Huizinga and had one child, Kristina Bracewell. He then married Jane Garthus and they had one child, Ryan Geordie. He founded Bracewell Marine Group/ Bracewell Boatworks Ltd in Richmond, BC.
1956 Kevan Bracewell was born in Williams Lake, BC. He runs Chilcotin Holidays, a wilderness tourism business. Thea and Ryan – robotics engineer. Williams Lake, BC
1957 Carol Bracewell (cousin of Kevan Bracewell) was born. She married Paul Fane and they had one child, Matthew.
1959 Alex Bracewell (brother of Kevan Bracewell) was born in Williams Lake, BC. He runs a wilderness tourism business at Tatlayoko Lake, BC. He married Connie Harris and they have three children, Bobbi Daia, Aaron (who runs an electrical business) and Anna Teresa. Williams Lake, BC
1996 Although Kevan Bracewell’s direct ancestors moved away to Salterforth and then Colne before 1540, others continued to live in the village of Bracewell until at least 1996, when a joint grave at St Michael’s records the death of Sydney and Eva Bracewell. Bracewell, Lancs